How To Conveniently Identify Yard Pests

If you have a garden, amongst the several troubles that you have to handle are yard insects. They can cause a great deal of damages to your shrubs, trees and plants. Some of one of the most common ones that you require to keep an eye out for consist of snails, aphids, caterpillars, earwigs as well as slugs. There are numerous pests that can strike your yard consequently you require to identify them before the issue leaves hand. They can be found on trees as well as plants which secrete sap. Aphids prevail in the majority of yards however it is challenging to recognize them because of their tiny size. These parasites normally create a deposit that sticks on the plants that causes the leaves on the plants to stain. Once the deposit gets on the plant it can permit mold to expand and the plant can pass away. As soon as you have actually recognized that there are some aphids in your garden, you can make use of ladybugs as well as hover flies to do away with them. Earwigs are easy to recognize by because their pincers make them look like tiny scorpions.

This parasite can be a great help if you have aphids in your garden but it likewise tends to cause a great deal of damages on the fallen leaves because they are starved eaters. If you discover there is a lot of flower and leaf damages in your yard, the problem could be the earwigs. Snails and also slugs can also cause a lot of problems in your garden. To manage the earwigs, you might have to get rid of the particular plant or blossom they are feeding upon. These bugs prey on vegetables as well as plant bulbs especially after it has actually rained heavily. They normally trigger the damages throughout the evening and also it is hard to discover them due to the fact that they are normally buried in the ground. They choose to feed upon young plants therefore you should watch out for them at an early stage. To deal with snails and slugs, you can make use of some eggshells or sawdust on the ground.

Their skins are delicate consequently they can not move on these products. Caterpillars can also trigger a great deal of damage in your yard and also mess up the appearance you wish to accomplish or even your plants. To identification this bug, look for any kind of webbing or curled fallen leaves. They like to prey on stems, flowers, fruit, and leaves. Writer’s Biography: I am a freelance author with proficiency in a selection of subjects and topics. I run numerous informative internet sites on topics which I am educated about, and also delight in creating posts to assist other individuals looking for some overviews or tips. If you discover the existence of caterpillars, you can remove them manually and then use some grease on the fallen leaves to avoid them from climbing up. What Are The Most Effective Earphones For You? Please Register or Login to upload brand-new comment. What Will Occur If You Acquire Instagram Suches As? Have a look at The Details Listed below! YOUR INNER MOVIE CRITIC ATTACKS YOUR PARENTING ABILITIES: Do You Should on Yourself?

Pests are infamous for triggering a loss of plants every year, nonetheless, that loss can be decreased with excellent bug control methods. If you guarantee that your plants have actually been correctly watered, fed and also grown, you will certainly additionally work toward growing plants that are a lot more pest resistant than plants that are neglected or have received inadequate care. There are lots of available plants which can endure the typical diseases that a garden deals with, yet there are much less selections that can take on pests. One expert green thumb declares that the best primary step lies in acquiring harder kinds of plants that have resistance to the most number of bugs feasible. This can assist you avoid seed birthed illness. You can locate numerous seed dealerships that have a go source great online reputation for offering high quality and also pest free seeds, as well as every year you must attempt and obtain some seeds from them. If you have actually begun your yard making use of seeds, you should not maintain these seeds to plant another garden. If you get transplants, make sure that they are solid as well as healthy.

If your seed startings are also weak, young and even also old, it is likely that they will not survive the shock of the transplant, making them much more susceptible to some bugs. For instance, you could grow corn in one area one year and afterwards cabbage the following. An excellent four year rotation would be to alternating corn with plants like broccoli, eco-friendlies or cabbage, and after that alternate those with plants such as pepper, potatoes, and tomatoes, and further alternative those with beans, beans or corn once again. An efficient and also affordable approach for regulating a variety of soil birthed conditions hinges on turning your vegetables around the garden annually. Examples of smart sanitation to be made use of completely insect control include seeing to it that the garden is devoid of plagued crop particles, cull heaps, as well as volunteer plants. Pests discover these products perfect for residing in, so they must not be saved for mulching or any kind of other use.

3 Simple Rules for Choosing the Best Budget-Friendly G9 LED Bulbs

You’ll find only decent news nowadays around G9 LED (light-emitting diode) bulbs. The values have come (they still cost more to purchase than incandescent bulbs, but they’ll save wads of money in the long term.) It is possible to choose colors of lighting rather than the unpleasant lighting from LEDs that are old. And you are going to find bulbs which work along with your house’s darker switches.

G9 LED lights’ advantages are all evident. GPT Technology amounts up them:

For the user, the advantages of G9 LED fittings are clear: they are energy efficient, could endure for over twenty decades, and, frequently, give lighting off. The values have been besides the light-emitting diode components have fallen present layouts that were much superior.

Consumers have endured confusion if selecting bulbs. It isn’t surprising. G9 LEDs can be found in various shapes and colors of lighting, which is tough to understand just how they compare into our halogen bulbs in brightness.

To simplify the adventure of using and Purchasing G9 LED bulbs, then Here Is What you Want to understand, boiled five principles:

If you don’t have the budget to restore bulbs at your house simultaneously, LED bulbs are pricey; therefore, since they burn, you should need to replace bulbs. Your investment can pay you back.

Set on your cupboard, by way of instance, or a different place at which the bulb is used, and it can be years and years until the cost of the bulb is reimbursed at energy savings. At which the payoff will probably be speediest, it’s ideal for making use of your LEDs, at the light fixtures which get from one’s home’s sections.

2. Look for lumens, maybe not watts

Watts are a measure of just how much energy that the bulb brings, maybe perhaps not its own brightness. We are familiar with searching for lighting bulbs with their peaks, and also we are aware of how much to anticipate from the 60-, 100- or 150-watt bulb.

Now, while the yardstick for brightness, utilize lumens rather than watts. The packaging on G9 LED bulbs speeds brightness in lumens (and in watts). To displace 60-watt halogen bulbs with the best g9 led bulb 60w equivalent, start looking to get a G9 LED rated at 600 lumens. What is the convenient comparison graph of HouseHoldProf.com:

Power, wattLumensHalogen Equivalent
325030W
540040W
660060W
10900100W

3. Get the light color you need

You’re going to be happy to learn that there are more options 26, In the event, you have switched away with the unpleasant caliber of lighting in G9 LEDs that are old. G9 LED bulbs to provide you of colors, in the yellow-white that is warmer, comparable to a thinner blueish or white.

Assess a bulb package for the light shade, displayed with its own dimensions in the Kelvin Scale (discover further from Khan Academy). Lower Kelvin amounts mean light. The higher the number.

Our advice for choosing your curtains and sheers

Dressing the windows is often the end point of decorating a room. And it’s not always easy to find your way around! The Becquet collection offers you a wide choice of ready-to-install to install in the blink of an eye. The different widths and heights available allow you to get almost tailor-made. Some of our models are also available in fabric by the meter (the cutouts are rounded to the nearest tenth of a meter): think about it for your windows of special dimensions or to make a coordinated decoration. All our ready-to-hang curtains are finished with hem (base and sides).

Find in the following sections the essential information to install your curtains according to your choice.

To perfect your decoration to the end of the windows, think of tiebacks and curtain rods. It is an additional decorative touch that must match the atmosphere of the room. On the practical side, tiebacks dress your windows while keeping your curtains open. If you plan to install your curtains on a bar, know that it is better to leave about 10 cm between the end of the bar and the support of the bar on the wall. Is your curtain mounted on a pleat? Allow 10 cm between each attachment point (ring or hook).

Curtains: Curtains (also called drapes, sometimes panels) give style and character to a room. In a room, they obscure the light and protect from possible vis-à-vis. In a living room, they are a major decorative element. A curtain can make a small space more intimate, warmer an entrance deemed too narrow. In a studio, it can be used to define the different living spaces. The blackout curtain is ideal for the bedroom for its insulating properties (acoustic, light, thermal). Dimensions The dimensions indicated in the reference tables are those of our curtains “laid flat”. It is up to you to determine the amount of gathers you want. Measure the height of your window from the hanging point up to 2 cm from the ground (or more if you want to let them extend to the ground). Measure the width of your window, or better that of your curtain rod, and multiply it by 1.5 to 2 depending on the desired gathering. Choose the dimension closest to that obtained. Finishes or heads of eyelets curtains: this is the most common form. These are metal or plastic rings (4 cm diameter) incorporated into the fabric. A beautiful finish that adapts to standard curtain rods. Advantage: a perfect glide which allows an easy opening of the curtains. Legs: loops (or loops) in fabric (height 8 to 10 cm) to pass the rod. Designed for all standard bars, this finish avoids rings or hooks. Installation is immediate, the decor touch is warm and natural. Gathered braid (also called ruflette): a braid sewn at the top of the curtains makes it possible to fix the hooks and / or rings used to hang them on rails or bars. Our gathered braids allow you to choose several attachment heights (to hide or not the fastening system) and obtain regular and uniform gathers over the entire width. Nouettes: a succession of small ties to tie for a decorative and aesthetic effect, in which we pass the rod as for the curtain with legs. Which fabric to choose? The range of materials is wide, and the choice depends on several factors. The sunshine of the room, its furnishings, its colors, your desire for decoration … Heavy fabrics They give a more cozy effect and are better suited to rooms exposed to the North (they also have insulating properties). The tarpaulin canvas with heavy drape is adorned with printed, embroidered patterns, is sometimes enriched with very decorative facings. The jacquard woven fabrics with complex patterns produced during weaving are as beautiful on the spot as on the reverse. Blackout curtains offer acoustic insulation, light privacy and a thermal barrier. We advise you to plan a length greater than that of the window to take advantage of these technical aspects. They are made of polyester with a beautiful fabric appearance, either enriched with a black thread in the weaving (to prevent light from passing through), or lined in PVC. It is also possible to add to a classic curtain a thermal lining or a blackout lining for curtains as effective in summer as in winter. Light fabrics They compose beautiful atmospheres without adding to the decor. They are easier to maintain and good value for money. The taffeta is slightly shiny, its colors are shimmering, its natural stiffness gives it a chic look. The microfiber offers a peach skin feel and a soft fall. Cotton canvas, cretonne, chambray canvas is often adorned with printed patterns, and you are sometimes offered with coordinates (quilts, tablecloths …).

Sheers: The final touch to the decoration, sheers must be in perfect harmony with your interior. Formerly simple dressings, today real window decorations, the curtains are no longer hidden behind the curtains, they wear their elegance high. Their transparency is also essential, because if the curtains protect your privacy, they must also let in light. Choosing between dimensions, finishes and materials is an art. In order not to be mistaken, follow the guide … Dimensions The dimensions indicated in the reference tables are those of our curtains “laid flat”. It is up to you to determine the amount of gathers you want. Measure the height of your window from the hanging point up to 2 cm from the ground (or more if you want to let them extend to the ground). Measure the width of your window, or better that of your curtain rod, and multiply it by 1.5 to 2 depending on the desired gathering. Choose the dimension closest to that obtained. The finishes or heads of the curtains We speak of “head” to designate the upper edge of the curtains: eyelets, legs, gathered braid or rod pocket tunnel. You choose it according to the type of sheer and bar that you want to install. Carnations: this is the most common form. These are metal or plastic rings (ø 4 cm) incorporated into the fabric. A beautiful finish that adapts to standard curtain rods. Advantage: a perfect glide which allows an easy opening of the curtains. Legs: loops (or loops) in fabric (height 8 to 10 cm) to pass the rod. Designed for all standard bars, this finish avoids rings or hooks, and is ideal for simple curtains that hang from a decorative bar. Installation is immediate, the decor touch is warm and natural. Rod pocket tunnels: a hem at the top of the curtain in which to slide the rod. The ideal solution for light fabrics. Advantage: discreet, conceals the rod and no need for rings or hooks. Gathered braid (also called ruflette): a braid sewn at the top of the curtains makes it possible to fix the hooks and / or rings used to hang them on rails or bars. Our gathered braids allow you to choose several attachment heights (to hide or not the fastening system) and obtain regular and uniform gathers over the entire width. Materials Play with materials and transparencies for a very successful decorative effect. Organza: moire effect, vaporous style. Made from synthetic materials, easy to maintain (polyester, polyamide), the organza is distinguished by its shine, its transparency and its beautiful behavior (swelling aspect). The organdy: light cotton muslin. The organdy sheer curtain is elegant and slightly matt. The cheesecloth: its weaving gives it a diaphanous appearance, a supple and light fall. Made of linen, cotton, or polyester, it dims the light without being completely transparent. For a shiny effect, choose flamed cheesecloth. Le devoré: a light and refined veil with a set of opaque and transparent patterns that create an original decor, even a relief effect.

Blinds: A nice alternative to net curtains, interior blinds offer a more modern and refined style. They play with shadows and light, and preserve your privacy without interfering with clarity. Placed alone or combined with curtains, they update the windows as you wish. Which blind for your interior? Dimensions For a single blind across the entire window, measure: the height of your window (including framing).

Our advice for choosing your curtains and sheers used to

the width of your window (including frame). For a blind on each pane of the window, measure: the height of your window with the frames.

the width of each window with the frames (remember to take the handle into account so as not to obstruct the opening). The blind heads Rod pocket tunnel: a hem at the top of the blind for sliding the rod in. The ideal solution for light fabrics. Advantage: discreet, conceals the rod. Velcro® rod pocket tunnel: Hem at the top, with Velcro sewn on the back of the fabric and self-adhesive Velcro to be placed on the bar (supplied). Advantage: Blind quickly installed, quickly removed, easy to maintain Styles We adjust the height of the blinds using ribbon stoppers or ties to tie: we love the romantic charm of one, the discretion of the other . Choose according to the style of your interior. Roman blind: decorative par excellence. With its ballast bars, it offers a taut appearance and folds into elegant waves. Simple blind: a more loose, more airy drop which is closer to traditional sheer. In terms of decoration, he imposes his style and his fantasy in a very current trend. Finishes: They are the little extra touch. This very personal decorative touch that gives character to your store. Straight base: clean line, very current, contemporary decor trend. Peak base: charm and elegance. The tip is often enhanced with a pompom in trimmings. Boiled base: a nice material effect. Often made in flexible, more airy fabrics, the bubbled blinds offer a nice play of volume (you can slide a ballast bar at the base for a more contemporary effect). Materials: Play with materials and transparencies for a very successful decorative effect. Organza: chic, fluid and wispy. Made from synthetic materials, easy to maintain (polyester, polyamide), it is distinguished by its shine, its finesse and its beautiful transparency. The cheesecloth: its weaving gives it a diaphanous appearance, a supple and light fall. Made of linen, cotton, or polyester, it dims the light without being completely transparent. For a shiny effect, choose flamed cheesecloth. Polyester: easy to live with par excellence. A synthetic, flexible, resistant and wrinkle-free material for always impeccable blinds. For a more subdued, more natural effect, choose polyester with a linen look.

Our advice for choosing your curtains and sheers and slightly matt

Straight curtains with point finish: These small curtains are generally placed directly on the window. They occupy the entire width and therefore do not require gathering. The tip is often enhanced with a pompom in trimmings. The double point curtains are made up of 2 thicknesses, coordinated and superimposed. Pointed curtains are sometimes available as blinds (see section The blinds). Dimensions Measure the height of your window from the hanging point up to 2 cm from the ground (or more if you want to let them extend to the ground). Measure the width of your window, or better that of your curtain rod, and multiply it by 1.5 to 2 depending on the desired gathering. Choose the dimension closest to that obtained. Finishes Our point net curtains are mounted on a rod pocket tunnel suitable for small rods, which may or may not be extendable: a hem at the top of the curtain allows the rod to slide. Advantage: discreet, ultra fast installation. Materials We offer a large selection of light materials that elegantly dress windows, easy to maintain and that do not obscure light. Organza is appreciated for its transparency and shimmering colors. The cheesecloth delicately dims the light, and is enriched with refined embroidery or more contemporary laser cuts. The slightly more obscuring shantung (wild silk look) brings a light spirit and leaves the room bright. The cotton veil is sometimes enhanced with a contrasting frame for a more decorative effect.

Successful retraining: How to choose the right legal status?

Member of the group Pose ta Dem ’for a few months, I see that for many of you it is difficult to find your way. Well, if you’ve decided to get into entrepreneurship, choosing your status isn’t an easy task either. You will have to assess your personal situation as well as your future business to be able to make the right decisions. The choice of legal status, tax and social security is indeed the last step before launching. I explain in this article how to choose the right legal status!

Guest article by Corinne Johnson

The problem is that there are so many possibilities, that it is difficult to know how to choose the right legal status (or at least the one that suits you!) … To help you, you need to know the answers to the following questions:

Do I want to start alone or with others?

Is my activity subject to specific regulations?

Do I have an idea of ​​the level of CA that I can reach or is it the total unknown? Are my potential customers validated?

Will I generate income quickly? How will I be able to get paid? Isn’t it better to launch an activity in parallel with my current activity at first?

Which social status suits me the most?

Will I have to incur large expenses at the start of the activity (purchase of goodwill, right to lease, purchase of premises)?

Am I going to need funding up front?

Will I have to protect my personal wealth?

These questions are essential for your choice of status and regime.

I indicate below the most appropriate options based on your answers:

Successful retraining: How to choose the right legal status? the food himself

Note that your choice is not fixed. You can very well start with one structure and progress later to another.

Option 1: Activity cooperatives and incubators

The incubators and some cooperatives offer a CAPE contract (contract to support a business project).

When to choose this option? This option is ideal for testing an activity that requires little investment or professional costs (these being deductible from turnover).

How it works ? The structure provides you with legal accommodation (SIRET number), professional insurance, a bank account but also administrative and accounting monitoring tools as well as numerous support (thematic workshops, individual meetings, group training, support in creating (business and entrepreneurship, etc.). The costs are between € 15 and € 70 per month depending on the structure chosen. Activity cooperatives / incubators can be generalist or specialized in certain types of activity.

What social status, what contributions? This contract allows you to keep your current status and benefit from employee social security cover. For example, if you are unemployed, you will continue to receive your AREs in full. The amount of social security contributions during this period is very low (less than € 5 per month) or even zero.

What are its limits ? You cannot exercise a commercial activity requiring a commercial lease, nor certain (regulated) activities. CAPE contracts are not intended for full-time employees or people already registered for the same activity.

And after ? In a cooperative, if your activity works, you can either create your own structure, or even be an entrepreneur-employee-partner with a permanent contract. In the latter case, the cooperative will take approximately 10% of your turnover. You will pay the same social contributions as a regular employee and will be entitled to the same benefits.

Option 2: Wage portage

Originally, the wage portage was intended to “transform fees into salaries for the benefit of executives in professional transition having acquired an expertise […] or those who want to work independently while carrying out missions in company”. Note that the framework of the wage portage was defined more precisely in 2015.

When to choose this option? If your customers are not individuals, if you have long and regular assignments as a “service provider”, that you plan to invoice at least € 3,000 per month and that you wish to have employee status, the salary portage can help you suit.

Take for example an IT engineer contractor. Often large companies in the sector call on service providers to find them specific skills / missions. However, if the company already knows its candidate but does not wish to hire him, going through salary portage can be a very good choice.

How it works ? The wage portage is a tripartite relationship between 3 actors: the client, the “port” and the portage company which plays the role of intermediary between these 2 actors. The porting company invoices a percentage (often declining) of your turnover to ensure the administrative and accounting management of your file.

What social status, what contributions? The service provider will have the status of employee whose gross remuneration will be equal to the turnover. Social security contributions will be the same as a standard employee (between 75 and 80% of net salary). For example, for a turnover after deduction of professional costs of € 3,000, you will receive approximately € 1,422 net (including deduction of the cost of the carrier company). Knowing that on average a service company in the provinces charges € 500 per day (or € 10,000 per month), it is possible to make a comfortable salary.

What are its limits ? This device is intended for BtoB customers only. It does not seem suitable to me (especially for the client) when you have short assignments with several clients. It also does not seem to me suitable if you need to finance large equipment, not supported by the customer. The other major drawback is that, unlike a service company, at the end of the mission, you must find your next customer yourself.

Option 3: Individual business

To use the definition of INSEE, sole proprietorship is a business which is the exclusive property of a natural person. It is not a separate legal person from the entrepreneur. The most common forms of sole proprietorship are: trader, craftsman, self-employed, farmer.

In recent years, the most created company in France has been the sole proprietorship with the micro-social and micro-fiscal regime, more commonly called “micro-enterprise”.

When to choose this option? Some professionals who want to practice alone, cannot have a CAPE contract or a salary portage (eg merchant or doctor). Their choice is then limited to the sole proprietorship or to companies. The sole proprietorship also turns out to be a good choice if the activity requires a certain level of investment and / or expenditure, because these will be deducted from your turnover (and therefore from the basis for calculating contributions social)

How it works There are some formalities required when setting up with the competent CFE (center of business formalities). It is you or a qualified professional who will do the accounting, social and / or VAT declarations.

What social status, what contributions? The status will be that of Unpaid Worker (TNS) who contributes to a plan other than that of employees (even if the government is talking about combining the two plans shortly). The TNS does not contribute to unemployment insurance. For liberal professions for example, the rate of employee contributions will be around 45% of profits (turnover minus charges) if your profit is lower or around 50,000 € a year. This rate decreases to 23% if your profit is around 100,000 € per year. This means that if you have a profit of € 36,000 per year, your net remuneration will be around € 20,000. Social security contributions (excluding CRDS and a share of the CSG) are also deductible from profits.

What are its limits ? Sole proprietorship, as the name suggests, does not allow associates. There is no distinction between professional and personal assets (but since the Macron Law of 2015, your main residence has been elusive). Beyond this aspect, the drawback is above all in the result of the company (profits or losses) if these are substantial (so this does not really concern the first years of activity). Indeed, all the profits are considered as remuneration, therefore subject to social security contributions. This means that if your company makes € 150,000 in profits you will pay contributions on this amount (around 23%), even if you actually need € 50,000 to live on… That is why many craftsmen and traders opt for society after a few years of activity in order to leave the profits in the society and possibly reinvest or distribute the profits in the form of dividends (of which the social contributions are 17.20%).

And the micro-enterprise in all this? The micro-enterprise is an individual enterprise whose accounting management is very simplified:

no VAT to be billed or deducted below € 33,200 in annual turnover.

no accounting to keep (only a register of receipts and expenses)

When to choose this option? The micro-enterprise is ideal for testing its activity because the creation and closure procedures are simple, quick and inexpensive. Due to the non-deductibility of professional expenses in the calculation of social contributions, this scheme is suitable if your activity requires little expenditure. It is also ideal when you want to supplement your salaried income because you already have part of the professional costs covered by your company (mutual, provident, hardware, access to certain software or paid resources, etc …) and you do not don’t have to spend on your side. Be careful not to compete with your employer….

What social status, what contributions? The social status is the same as for the sole proprietorship under the real regime. There are few differences in terms of acquired rights. However, the social contributions are calculated on the basis of turnover (without taking into account the amount of professional expenses). Its rate varies according to the type of activity (sale of goods or services) and can be fixed every year by the government.

What are its limits ? Part of the answer is given in the previous paragraph. There is also a turnover limit not to be exceeded depending on the type of activity. In addition, this regime is prohibited for certain professions (doctors, accountants, etc.)

To compare the rate of social contributions between the real regime and the micro-enterprise regime, I suggest the following graph:

The higher your charges, the lower your margin and the less you will pay social security contributions in real terms. In micro-enterprises, social security contributions are identical since they are calculated on your turnover.

There are a few tips to reduce your business expenses in micro-enterprises. For example, a person working in the restaurant industry who prepares meals for events / parties, may very well ask his client to buy the food himself, and he will only charge for the provision of meal preparation … Or else he can buy the food himself and ask his suppliers to issue an invoice on behalf of his client (this is called disbursement costs). Thus the reimbursement of these expenses will not be declared in the income of the micro-enterprise and therefore will not be subject to social security contributions…. But it also means that the contractor will not be able to make a margin on this part of the quote.

Of course this advice cannot be applied to all types of activities. For example, I can’t see a beautician in a micro-enterprise asking her supplier to invoice the varnish on behalf of Madame Dupont, or even asking Madame Durant to come with her own wax…

Option 4 – The company

To explain what a company is, I have to refer to the definition of INSEE: “A company is an entity with legal personality. It is created for a commercial purpose, namely, to produce goods or services for the market, which can be a source of profit […] for its owner (s); it is the collective property of its shareholders, who have the power to appoint the directors responsible for its general management. “

Phew, that is said …

When to choose this option? The first case is when you want to join, the company is the only option you have, and this, whatever the legal form and the tax or social regime chosen. In general, commercial companies are also recommended in the event of a rapid development of your activity or a significant need for external financing. In addition, it allows you to separate your personal heritage from your professional heritage. Finally, depending on the form of company and the tax system adopted, you can have more or less the choice on the form of remuneration chosen (salary, managerial remuneration, dividends) and your social status (Unpaid Worker or Similar Employee).

How it works ? It really depends on the legal form you choose, but basically it will be necessary to carry out some administrative formalities (at least draft the statutes) and provide for a share capital (the amount of which varies according to the legal form chosen). For the rest it seems difficult to make generalities …

What social status, what contributions? It still depends on the legal form and the tax system chosen. In general, you can be either an assimilated employee or TNS. Social security contribution rates will be approximately 65% ​​of net remuneration if you are an assimilated employee and 45% of the managerial remuneration if you are TNS. Please note that there are no social contributions on company dividends, however dividends are subject to social contributions of 17.20% (which will be used to repay France’s debt and give you the right to …. repay l ‘year after)

What are its limits ? A company requires more administrative and accounting formalities than the options seen above. Furthermore, in a company with several partners, you are probably not the only one to make decisions …

To summarize all the information that I have just given you, I suggest this diagram:

Important: do not choose your status for the wrong reasons

There is so much bias in the world of entrepreneurship that it is very common to choose a status for the wrong reasons. Here are a few :

Administrative simplicity: this is typically the case for entrepreneurs who choose the micro-enterprise for reasons such as the speed of creation, little accounting or declarative obligation (for example no VAT declaration if the turnover is less than 33,200 €).

: this is typically the case for entrepreneurs who choose the micro-enterprise for reasons such as the speed of creation, little accounting or declarative obligation (for example no VAT declaration if the turnover is less than € 33,200) . Benefit from social benefits: entrepreneurs often want to create a company and have the status of employee to benefit from better health protection, better retirement and unemployment benefits. Of course, but given the amount of an employee’s social security contributions, is the game really worth it? Couldn’t you find a competitive mutual benefit offering high protection? Isn’t it better to save or invest on your side to prepare for retirement? Or what are the risks of being unemployed for a long time? How much would you get if that was the case?

This long article is coming to an end … I hope it has informed you about the different possibilities available to you. Given the complexity of the statutes, do not hesitate to surround yourself with specialists so that they can make you personalized proposals. And remember, there are no good or bad solutions, there is only bad advice ��

If you are interested in the subject, you can contact Corinne on her Facebook account.

�� Click here to join the most excited community of future resigners! Guaranteed daily inspiration and support!

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This is me

Hey team, will he be ready the hairstyle guide soon? Readers get impatient!

I swear, you can’t imagine how many times I’ve heard this phrase in Nicolò’s mouth in recent weeks…

If you have been following BonneGueule for more than 48 hours, you must know Nicolò, our great community manager. From evening to morning and from morning to evening, only two things occupy his mind: the well-being of the BonneGueule community… and his hair!

To tell you, he spends almost as much time answering your questions as (re) styling …

It is not for nothing that Horace devoted an entire article to the hair routine of our favorite community manager …

Inevitably, he awaited this guide with undisguised impatience, both to satisfy your many requests and to perfect his hair skills.

As you know, the hair is not at the heart of usual concerns at BonneGueule. We help men to feel good in their clothes, but not really to look after their mane…

Since the world of hairdressing is not quite our core business, we therefore relied on the expertise of a professional to write this guide.

A challenge remained: to find THE most competent hairdresser possible, who would distill his knowledge with pedagogy.

Remembering an old French proverb 1, I turned to the Artley salon and more particularly Christophe Adric, its artistic director.

The latter kindly agreed to answer my questions, and I thank him warmly. As you read, I will share these with you at the most appropriate times.

“I consider myself more as an artist than as a craftsman. “Said the expert to whom I asked my questions.

CHRISTOPHE ADRIC, HAIR EXPERT

Hi Christophe. Can you introduce yourself to BonneGueule readers?

” Hello ! I am artistic director at Artley and image coach for actors, models and public figures.

After multiple professional experiences and many trips around the world, I came to Paris, “City of Light”, where hairdressing very naturally presented itself to me as a passion.

From then on, I no longer had to search, everything was there: know-how and know-how. I have had the privilege of working for twenty years for the biggest haircare brands around the world, and teaching my passion to hairdressers and show intermittents in my Hairdressing Academy.

(Photo credits: Christophe Adric)

I also provided training for the collaborators of the L’ORÉAL France – Clichy research laboratory. I have worked regularly for UNESCO as part of the “Women in Science” program.

Passionate about art and photography, I always work according to an art of living: cultivating the supreme of sophistication, that is, making it simple and doing it right.

Side 2 clothes, I have a rock style (and the attitude that goes with it), but not in forced mode. Everything is in the subtlety in order to remain consistent with yourself. “

(Photo credits: Christophe Adric)

What does your daily work consist of?

Quite simply: develop the Artley 3 concept and motivate my expert staff with all my energy and passion.

It’s also about meeting people, revealing a story through their haircut … The most important thing for me is to create, whether through my work in the salon or in fashion.

What are the differences between a hairdresser and a hairstylist? Are these notions complementary or inseparable?

The hairdresser makes a cut, while the hairstylist seeks to adjust his creation to each face. One cannot really go without the other.

What is a good hairdresser? A good make-up artist?

In my opinion, a good hairdresser can listen and watch carefully. He advises well and displays a high level of professional expertise.

Conversely, I don’t think there is a “good make-up artist” per se. Make-up artists don’t adhere to strict rules and you have to know how to go against the main principles if necessary. Indeed, a defect can be an interesting trait to exploit in order to create character.

Does make-up take into account only the face or style in general?

For me, hairstyle is an integral part of the general style! If your hairdresser passes you the robe without looking at you before, beware …

(RE) KNOW YOUR TYPE OF HAIR

Not all men are equal in terms of their hair characteristics: it is often a mix between genetic heritage and lifestyle (hygiene, diet, etc.). – Christophe Adric

For men, the hair universe is full of mysteries. If these gentlemen often take care of their skin, their line and their appearance, they tend to neglect the hygiene of their hair, for lack of knowledge in the matter.

For this reason, I believe it is essential to start at the beginning and review the BA.

I will avoid the far-fetched explanations; we will review the fundamentals to start on a good basis.

Just as one must know the nature of one’s skin to treat it, one cannot properly maintain one’s hair without mastering its type.

Understanding your mane is essential to pamper it properly and prevent problems 4.

LITTLE LESSON OF ANATOMY

This is me day in big

First of all, we must agree on one point: the hair is a hair like any other!

Longitudinal (left) and cross section (right) of a human hair.

Like a flower, it is made up of three parts, only one of which is visible on the surface:

the stem: this is the emerged part of the hair. It’s the one you can style and sculpt on your head. This stem contains a protein, keratin, which results from the accumulation of dead cells that harden 5. Despite its finesse, the stem has 3 layers including the cuticle 6, the cortex 7 and the marrow 8.

The sebaceous gland, which is seen above the bulb, produces sebum. It is an essential substance because it greases the hair shaft and gives it resistance to external aggressions (pollution, sun, rain, etc.). Too much or too little, however, the sebum can be harmful to the scalp and its tenants … but we’ll see that later.

the bulb (or hair follicle): it represents the envelope of the root and lodges in the dermis. It is within it that new cells are born, pushing the older ones upwards. The older cells die and then make up the stem. Yes, you hear right: the visible part of our hair is biologically dead …

the root: it lives in the heart of the bulb. It is the living part of the hair: it is nourished by the blood capillaries to allow growth.

An (almost) clear summary.

Concretely, the blood vessels water the root in nutrients, which allow the hair to make this famous keratin and grow properly.

Depending on their location on the scalp, they grow differently: forward at the forehead, rather backward at the neck, and stiffly on the skull.

Few people whose head resembles a sea urchin and this, precisely, thanks to this specific implantation. In the vast majority of cases, the hair naturally follows the curvature of your skull.

It is by following this process that the 130,000 hairs (on average) that populate our noodles were born. Even if we naturally lose around fifty each day, there is still enough left to test ever more incredible hairstyles … provided we know which group we belong to.

These groups are divided according to several more or less relevant classifications. There are several dozen depending on the country and organization, but I have chosen to present two of them because they are very complementary and rather consistent.

CLASSIFICATION BY NATURE OF SCALP

This is a fairly classic and very traditional classification, which often goes hand in hand with the skin type. We therefore distinguish, without suspense:

dry hair: the sebaceous gland, which we were talking about earlier, does not produce enough sebum in this case. Also, the scalp is not sufficiently hydrated and the hair is dry, brittle and relatively coarse. They are fragile and quite difficult to untangle / style.

Even if it’s hard to see it in the image, dry hair looks dull and lacks shine.

normal hair: everything is fine in this case. The sebaceous gland has worked well, “and it shows on the outside” as the other would say. Suddenly, the hair has a beautiful appearance, it is rich, strong and quite shiny (without being oozing). It is then easy to discipline them as you please.

Normal hair appears perennial. We feel that we could pass our hand through it without resistance, or bring it out oily.

oily hair: you can imagine, this is an excess of sebum … Results? Heavy, oily hair that can be quite unpleasant in appearance.

Accentuated by a (good) dose of gel, the oily hair effect is manifested by an unnatural shine and a rather unsightly “bundle of wicks” effect.

CLASSIFICATION OF ANDRÉ WALKER

This is a classification less known in France, although it is more so on the other side of the Atlantic. And for good reason, André Walker is none other than the stylist of Oprah Winfrey, queen of US TV. 9.

Here are the two together and, to say the least, hair is in the spotlight!

In 1999, the latter wrote a book 10 in which he introduced a revolutionary classification which immediately created buzz among our American friends.

If it is primarily intended for women, this guide can just as well be understood as masculine since the hair has no gender.

According to André Walker, two parameters must be taken into account to categorize his hair: texture and thickness.

the texture is noted on 4: 1 = stiff, 2 = wavy, 3 = curly, 4 = frizzy.

the thickness is noted on an increasing scale from A to C.

To determine your hair type, observe it in its most natural state possible. Wash them and wait for them to dry without applying any product to them.

By combining these two criteria, we thus obtain 12 possible combinations: 1A; 1B; 1 C ; 2A; 2B; 2C; 3A; 3B; 3C; 4A; 4B; 4C.

It sounds complicated said like that but you will see that once illustrated, it is very clear. Take a look!

First we have the range of straight hair, from the thinnest on the left to the thickest on the right.

Same logic here with our comrades with wavy hair.

You got the idea: 3A left, 3B center, 3C right.

Same fight on the side of frizzy hair…

Obviously, the actors’ hair changes from one film to another (or even from one scene to another) so don’t be offended if you have already seen Matthew McConaughey with straight hair or Morgan Freeman with long straight hair …

This is a fairly incomplete comparison, the only claim of which is to illustrate the model theorized by André Walker, so that you have a clearer and more faithful idea.

I also point out that there are other classifications (FIA, LOIS, MIZANI …) that you can consult on the net. Nevertheless, I believe that of A. Walker’s is by far the clearest, simplest and most effective. Your turn to judge…

“Ok Lucas, I’m 1A, 2B or 4C. And now, what do I do ? “. Well, you go to the next paragraph. Quite simply !

WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO KNOW YOUR TYPE OF HAIR?

Knowing your hair type may seem anecdotal, but it is a must.

Would you imagine applying creams at random on your skin, without having previously determined whether it is rather dry or rather oily? Of course not … and the reasoning should be the same for your hair.

Determining your “hair identity”, by crossing the two previous classifications, will allow you to choose effectively:

the care to adopt for your hair: depending on your type, it will be necessary to deal differently with the products and other masks to remove excess sebum or make them soft and shiny.

: depending on your type, it will be necessary to compose differently with the products and other masks to eliminate excess sebum or to make them soft and radiant. the most suitable shampoos and conditioners for your mane: never bet on the classic 5 in 1 hair and body soap… it saves you 5 minutes but does you more harm than good in the long term.

to your mane: never bet on the classic 5-in-1 soap for hair and body… it saves you 5 minutes but does you more harm than good in the long term. the most consistent care for your scalp: it is essential to nourish it, to rid it of impurities and to relax it.

For example, our colleague Maurice Style offers various products for straight and fine hair like his in his grooming section.

To illustrate my remarks, I will give you an example that I know quite well: mine!

At first, I have normal hair 11. As for that of André Walker, I am rather on a 1C 12, that is to say straight and thick hair.

Knowing that, I opt for a classic and neutral shampoo, without volumizing effect so as not to thicken my hair further, and I do not apply sebum-regulating products.

I also do not put conditioner since its use is intended to repair dry and damaged hair or lack of volume.

In addition, my hairdresser applies a scrub and a scalp mask every three to four weeks, which eliminates dead skin, promotes blood circulation and … relax!

TAKING CARE OF YOUR HAIR

As we have just seen, knowing your hair type is essential to take care of it. But concretely, how do we do on a daily basis? That’s what I’m explaining right away …

If you read carefully, you can surely have as beautiful a mane as Florian. You know what you have to do …

CHRISTOPHE’S ANALYSIS

We know that those with thick hair would want them fine, that the curly would not be, that the blond would like to be brown and vice versa … In short, can we fight against the nature of his hair?

Yes and no. It all depends on the priority and the effort (time and money) that we want to provide. In the cinema: anything is possible! In everyday life, it is not always that simple. The question would be: should we fight against its nature or make it an asset?

In terms of clothing, a good wardrobe is based on good basics. What about the “ideal toiletry bag”? What are the essential products to take care of your hair?

Like a locker room, each kit should be different. However, there are a few invariants including: a good shampoo, a TIGI flat brush, a 3-row boar bristle brush, a comb, salt water spray, flexible non-greasy modeling paste, a dryer, a pocket mirror (for the profile and the back) and possibly a mini mower…

A Shu Uemura styling wax, a comb, an Ocean Mist from Sachajuan and a TIGI flat brush… enough to start the ideal toiletry bag according to Christophe.

The Internet is full of “grandmother tips” to take care of your hair and give it volume, shine, softness … Avocados, eggs, honey, clay, everything goes. What do you think ?

It’s like looking for a solution to treat yourself on the Internet: it’s very risky. It is essential to check the origin of the text, the credibility of this person and see if it really suits you. The diagnosis is very important, it is 50% of success.

HOW TO WASH THEM?

Again, I asked Christophe for his (enlightened) opinion …

We hear everything and its opposite about how often and how to wash your hair. Can you close this debate and tell us when we shampoo?

It is like the body, the scalp must be clean so as not to suffocate the pores of the skin. We should wash our hair at least every other day in big cities because pollution and odors are largely captured in our hair and skin.

We should not wash or strip the hair but just gently clean, to leave the natural lipid film that protects us.

LOL.

Now that we have a general idea of ​​the frequency, we must know how to wash the “tifs”! Ideally, rely on cold water. That said, I’m like you: taking a cold shower every morning (especially in winter) does not particularly delight me…

If you do not opt ​​for freezing water, make sure not to subject your hair to a hot bath and prefer as much as possible a warm temperature so as not to attack it.

Then you have to go to shampooing. Here, feel free to massage your scalp with small circular movements. You thus link the useful with the pleasant since in addition to being pleasant, this technique improves blood circulation and cleanses your skull thoroughly.

Generally, your hairdresser performs this cranial massage before styling, which promotes blood circulation in addition to relaxing you. At Artley, the setting is all the more soothing. (Photo credits: Topsy One)

Rinsing is the next step, and it’s not the least important. Indeed, it allows to evacuate dead skin from massage as well as “debris” accumulated during the night and / or the day.

What shampoos for what types of hair? I suggest some ideas…

Do you have dry hair? You can go for these Redken shampoos, or any other nourishing product (often based on shea butter or olive oil).

You can go for these Redken shampoos, or any other nourishing product (often based on shea butter or olive oil). Do you have normal hair? A neutral shampoo will do the trick.

A neutral shampoo will do the trick. If you have oily hair, I recommend the shampoo enriched with nutrients from Baxter, embellished with amino acids and keratin. Here, the idea is to limit the production of sebum because it is this over-secretion which gives a fairly oily “oily” effect to the hair. It is therefore advisable to purify the scalp, which agents such as mint or nettle allow.

, I recommend the shampoo enriched with nutrients from Baxter, embellished with amino acids and keratin. Here, the idea is to limit the production of sebum because it is this over-secretion which gives a fairly oily “oily” effect to the hair. It is therefore advisable to purify the scalp, which agents such as mint or nettle allow. Very (too?) Fine hair? There are also volumizing shampoos to reduce this phenomenon, like the honey range from Leonor Greyl.

There are also volumizing shampoos to reduce this phenomenon, like the honey range from Leonor Greyl. TIGI, AVEDA and ARTLEY also offer quality natural products, without sulfates or dyes.

HOW TO FEED THEM?

Washing your hair is good, but nourishing it is even better. Once or twice a month, allow yourself a small hair mask, beneficial for both your scalp and your hair … and your morale.

As I said above, the hair is on the front line and victims of many attacks over the days. Scorching heat, driving rain, various and varied styling products, pollution … so many parameters that can affect their appearance.

So feeding them is extremely important to revitalize them and make them look better.

You can for example turn to:

a Sachajuan conditioner to make your hair stronger and more shiny (in the good sense of the word),

a repairing mask from the same brand, to restore vigor and vitality,

ultra-nourishing products, based on jojoba oil or safflower for example. It’s almost mandatory to hydrate frizzy hair, which is often very dry,

a scrub, mask and / or scalp massage when you go to the hairdresser. If you have oily hair, request an absorbent mask (often clay-based). Conversely, prefer a nourishing mask if your hair is rather dry.

How to take care of your hair?

If you scrupulously follow the steps we have just seen, you will not normally need to take care of your hair since it will be in perfect health. However, if your routine has not yet been worked out or, for one reason or another 13, your mane is not at its best, then it should be treated.

Dandruff, impromptu discolouration … all these defects are not necessarily fatal or irreversible. Preventing these risks is essential and most often quite simple: rigorous and regular care must be adopted and, if necessary, treated specifically.

Considered the top of the range of L’Oréal, Redken offers a very wide range of products for all hair types. Despite the intimidating prices, some can nevertheless be a relevant alternative.

To eradicate dandruff, Sachajuan offers a “Professional haircare” shampoo that also acts on redness and itching, just like Aveda with a deeper anti-dandruff treatment.

If your hair has trouble growing or if it looks weak, Sachajuan is still there for you with its “Hair control treatment” which promotes growth while strengthening it.

Lighter, TIGI repairing shampoos and conditioners allow damaged hair to be “put on its feet”.

HOW TO EAT?

No, there is no typo. What we eat can influence our hair.

” We are what we eat. “Says Christophe.

You’ve probably noticed that you often have oily skin when you eat a ketchup-mayo double meat kebab or a Maxi Best-Of menu. Logically, the scalp reacts more or less in the same way …

Hair, no more than your beach body, therefore does not like tacos or pizzas. Conversely, vegetables and other sources of vitamins B / C will be your best allies for strong and shiny hair.

In summary…

Foods rich in zinc 14 and iron 15 are also essential.

Why ? Simply because keratin 16 needs these elements to fully assume its role.

Like what, it’s not just alcohol that hurts hair …

MISTAKES NOT TO BE COMMITTED

Even if you strictly follow the previous recommendations, some trivial details can undermine your thoroughness and deteriorate your hair. I give you a small, fairly exhaustive list of the most common mistakes to avoid as much as possible:

do not wash your hair more than is necessary: ​​it is useless or even dangerous to shampoo yourself every day. Indeed, too frequent washing can be counterproductive and dry the hair or, on the contrary, promote the greasing of the scalp. For normal hair, two shampoos per week are more than enough. If you have dry hair, one to two weekly washes can represent a consistent rhythm, accompanied by special care. Oily hair needs more frequent care and requires a daily shampoo to reduce over-production of sebum.

Depending on your hair type, you will need to wash your hair at different frequencies. Photo credits: Reader’s Digest.

Small additional clarification: for frizzy hair, naturally dry, opt for a wash every 2/3 days, coupled with moisturizing and nourishing masks and / or conditioners.

take care of the hair dryer: it is more practical than a towel, faster than manual drying, rather pleasant in winter … but it is not a technique to adopt. In fact, the heat emanating from this tool 17 attacks the scalp, which produces sebum to defend itself. Oily hair insured, therefore, not to mention potential burns. If you are a fan of this weapon, keep it away from your skull and keep the temperature as low as possible.

: it is more practical than a towel, faster than manual drying, rather pleasant in winter … but it is not a technique to adopt. In fact, the heat emanating from this tool 17 attacks the scalp, which produces sebum to defend itself. Oily hair insured, therefore, not to mention potential burns. If you are a fan of this weapon, keep it away from your skull and keep the temperature as low as possible. stay reasonable with styling products: the gel suffocates the hair and clogs the pores of the skin of the skull, which is harmful to your scalp. A dab of mat wax should be enough to shape your cut: settle for … or change the product.

Spoiler: 30 grams of gel will not allow you to rob a bank. As long as to do, therefore prefer a natural wax.

do not go to bed with stuck hair: if you do not take a shower before bed, do at least a few brush / comb strokes to ventilate your hair.

: If you do not take a shower before bed, do at least a few brush / comb strokes to ventilate your hair. watch out for headgear: you must let your mane dry! So, try not to abuse caps, bobs and other hats so as not to impede the oxygenation of your scalp or your blood circulation.

In small doses…

run away from dyes: I know, browns would like to be blond and vice versa, but Mother Nature is stronger than our stylistic ambitions. So, compose a hair genre related to the nature of your hair … and in accordance with their color. The dyes contain chemicals that are devastating to your hair and, believe me, it’s not worth the effort.

With Luca, we wanted to try gray coloring lately, but our hairdressers strongly advised against it. Christophe explained to me why: “To make a gray, you have to remove all the natural pigments to obtain a platinum before making a lasting color, which degrades the hair. Concretely, it is a bit like if you wanted to tan skin from white to chocolate in one day: it is possible but very dangerous. “

So, we abandoned the idea and we are content with our brown and thick mop … Italian style.

Admit that the result could have been nice, like at Lucky Blue Smith.

IMPROVE YOUR STYLE… HAIR

You have recognized your type of hair, you are unbeatable in the care you need to provide, and you now have a beautiful and silky mane in good health … but have we done the trick?

Obviously not, the question remains how to improve what our English-speaking friends call the “hairstyle”.

THE RIGHT QUESTIONS TO ASK YOURSELF

Before choosing this or that hairstyle, you need to ask yourself a series of simple questions that will help you determine which one best suits you:

How much time are you ready to devote to your daily cut? Whether you are the type to put two combs out of the shower or prefer to arrange your hair in detail for 20 minutes, this is a parameter to take into account before choosing your hairstyle.

Whether you are the type to put two combs out of the shower or prefer to arrange your hair in detail for 20 minutes, this is a parameter to take into account before choosing your hairstyle. How often do you want to go to the hairdresser? Whether you love getting shampooed or scissoring is a real worry, you need to adapt your hair to reflect this.

Whether you love getting shampooed or scissoring is a real worry, you need to adapt your hair to reflect this. What budget are you ready to commit for your “haircut”? Equipment, masks, dyes, pruning, scissors or clippers, massages … all cuts are not equal and do not require the same maintenance: so many things to consider depending on your wallet.

A whole routine…

Which hairstyle is best suited to match your dress style?

Finally (and above all), which hair style do you like?

By answering these questions, you will have a relatively faithful overview of the hairstyle to adopt, consistent with your tastes and means.

The second step, probably the most complicated, is to know if the hairstyle of your dreams can match the shape of your face.

CHOOSE YOUR HAIR

Choosing your clothes can be tricky, but adopting a hairstyle is a different story. Depending on your hair type, you are not entirely free to choose one or the other.

How not to have children?

1In France, work on contraception and fertility control has long been marked by a “teleological vision of the history” of contraception (Pavard, 2012: 15), considered as a source of emancipation for women and as “Lever of male domination” (Héritier, 1999: 48). The weight of this approach, which links medical contraception and the liberation of women, has slowed the emergence of a critical sociological perspective on contraception, and it is rather demography and epidemiology that have taken hold of the subject in France, limiting birth control to a public health issue of reduction of voluntary terminations of pregnancy.

2It was not until the turn of the years 1990-2000 that French research underlined the restrictive nature for women of pregnancy prevention methods and the medical and social standards that govern their use. Highlighting a standard (Bajos / Ferrand, 2004) restricting contraceptive uses within a well-defined temporality and relationship maturity (male condom for punctual relationships or at the start of relationships, pill once stabilized, IUD when the desired number of children is reached) completes a whole reflection on the social control to which women are subject in reproductive matters and in particular birth control (Ferrand-Picard, 1982). For the past ten years, works have been trying to depart from this emancipatory vision of contraception and seek to reveal social inequalities (Bajos et al., 2012), the obstacles to its use or the invisible dimensions of responsibility. that women overwhelmingly endorse. These surveys seem all the more necessary today as an evolution of the French contraceptive model, in particular a reduction in the use of the pill, seems to begin following the “crisis of the pills” of 2012-2013 (Bajos et al., 2014).

1 If men are not absent from contraceptive work (Le Guen M. et al., 2015), taking care of (…) 3Preventing pregnancy covers a certain number of tasks and burdens which constitute work in itself for those who, for the most part, take responsibility for it: women. Being able to benefit from contraception implies in fact respecting certain stages: these are material, financial, time constraints which follow one another. Added to these different obligations is the “mental burden” (Haicault, 2000: 15) borne by women using contraception, which consists of the need to worry – continuously, and sometimes on a daily basis – about what intercourse are not fertile. If they are finally and an abortion is planned, it is always women who will have to manage it (days off, possible pain, etc.) and are likely to be stigmatized (Mathieu / Ruault, 2015 ).

2 Like certain parts of salaried work. In particular, this invisibility concerns (…) 4Or, this contraceptive work, which represents a section of reproductive work and is based on the empowerment of women, has been naturalized over time; its different dimensions thus seem to have gradually become invisible. The very conditions of possibility of this invisibilization – in particular the gender inequalities that found this work and are renewed through it, but also the medical staff that orders it – also remain to be thought about. To understand the naturalization of contraceptive work is therefore to wonder: who benefits from this invisible work of women? It is in fact at the crossroads of two types of power relations, which are not themselves distinct but rather rather nested one inside the other: medical power, on the one hand, which currently frames today in France the contraceptive practice of the majority of women; gender relations, on the other hand, which induce women to internalize their assignment to the domestic and reproductive sphere. The reduction of contraceptive work to female responsibility therefore refers to two types of logic which are mutually supportive: a logic of public health, where it is a question of thinking in terms of population management and control births; a gender logic, where it is rather a question of the possibility of a discharge of male responsibility (Spencer, 1999) and the consequences of this work.

3 The pill has since become the most widely used method in France: 40.6% of women affected by (…) 5This article will first analyze female responsibility for contraception, looking back at its origins since the legalization in France of the contraceptive pill in 1967 then on its progressive invisibilisation. It then aims to shed light on certain concrete dimensions of contraceptive work, by emphasizing in particular the efficiency imperative to which women are subject, as well as the resources required today for “choice” in contraception. Finally, he intends to come back to the most denied dimension of contraceptive work: that which concerns the effects on the body, emotions and sexuality of the methods used to not have children.

Methodology

This article is based on two doctoral research. A first thesis work, that of Mylène Rouzaud-Cornabas, focused on contemporary contraceptive policies, drawing on both institutional and press archives and on a corpus of 78 interviews carried out with health actors and actresses. (health professionals, user and feminist associations, public authorities). Taking into account the recent crisis of so-called new generation pills has also led to work on the data from the Fecond surveys (Fertility – Contraception – Sexual dysfunctions, Inserm / Ined, 2010 and 2013) about contraceptive practices and representations . The second thesis, that of Cécile Thomé, questions the effects of the spread and contemporary use of different contraceptive methods on sexuality and gender relations. It is based on a corpus of archives, the Fécond surveys as well as a corpus of 71 interviews on sexual and contraceptive life, conducted with women and men aged 20 to 84 and having exclusively or mainly heterosexual intercourse.

6The “Simon report”, the first major French survey on sexuality, conducted in 1970 by the FIFG under the direction of Doctor Pierre Simon, emphasizes that “formerly practiced almost exclusively by men – if not always on their own initiative – contraception today tends to become an equally feminine behavior ”(Simon et al., 1972: 334). From the 1960s, medical methods of contraception (in particular the contraceptive pill), managed by women, gradually replaced interrupted coitus as well as methods based on the determination of ovulation and abstinence (Ogino method, temperature method).

7If this medicalization of contraception is accompanied by its feminization, it is because the contraceptive pill is the main outlet for a whole section of scientific and industrial development of research on hormones. The discovery, in the 1920s, of so-called feminine and masculine sex hormones led to a biologizing interpretation of the masculine and the feminine, which reinforced the discourse on the difference of the sexes (Gaudillère, 2012: 58; Martin, 1987). By meeting a desire to locate the “feminine essence”, to understand and mark the distinction between the sexes, this endocrine turning point perpetuates gender representations associated with reproductive bodies (Oudshoorn, 2003). Due in particular to the ease of access and synthesis of estrogens but also to their profitability in what will become pharmaceutical products (Martin, 1987), research and development in this area mainly revolves around understanding the female hormonal system. (Löwy, 2006; Watkins, 2012), to the detriment of understanding male reproductive functions and, therefore, research on contraceptives for men.

8The distribution of the pill and then of the other hormonal contraceptives (injections, hormonal IUD, implant, patch, ring) is part of this process of feminization of contraception. The essentialization of female contraceptive responsibility is also to be seen in a relational approach, female work gradually allowing male disinvestment.

How not to have children? part of an

4 The condom was however rarely used on a regular basis, both because it was (…) 9It is, before the distribution of the pill, the withdrawal which was the most used preventive technique in France to avoid pregnancy. In 1970, 54% of men and 50% of women declared that they had already used it, far ahead of condoms (33% and 23%), the Ogino method (15% and 14%) and the temperature method (7% for both) (Simon et al., 1972: 331). Practiced by men, the withdrawal was their responsibility, as revealed by the words of Simone (retired researcher 79 years old) about the partners she had before her marriage: “Most of the time it was the man who said, ‘I’ll be careful’. If he was nice: “Don’t be afraid, I’ll be careful”.

10Men therefore had the mental burden of withdrawing – whether, as in the case of Simone, during relationships outside marriage, but also within the framework of the couple formed. If men had to do some form of work on their sexual desire and / or pleasure, this contraceptive responsibility remained relatively circumscribed, in particular because it did not belong to the medical sphere and was mainly played during the act. sexual – moreover, it was then women who had to bear the consequences of a possible male failure (Accampo, 2003). For their part, women were poorly informed about sexuality, which could prevent them from preventing conception themselves: the first medical means, in particular the diaphragm, indeed required familiarity with one’s own sexual organs which was often lacking (Fisher, 2000).

5 We find the same type of shift in responsibility with the male condom (Thomé C. (…) 11 But this should not mask a possible female investment in the work of fertility control: indeed “traditional methods, even when they are male, can be initiated or required by women “(Rusterholz / Praz, 2016: 14). This is of course the case with the Ogino method and that of temperatures, which are based on determination by the woman of her fertile period and necessitate reacting to the sexual desire of the partner. But it can also be that of withdrawal, a method however considered as masculine, as testified by Paulette (retired cook, 84 years old):

– So you were afraid of having sex or …?

– Oh well not even, not even, because I was careful. As soon as I saw that it started to be agitated, I went, pfiout. I backed away! [laughter].

12Here, it is Paulette who is concerned with the course of sexual intercourse: she “[pays] attention” to two, having learned to recognize the moment when her husband had to withdraw. She is also the one who, like many other women (Thébaud, 1991), experiences the fear of being pregnant on a daily basis, when her periods do not arrive (“When it did not come … I grumbled because I said to him ‘Bah, am I still pregnant !?’ “): another form of burden, an integral – and already feminine – part of an intimate and invisible contraceptive work. Thus, we note that the male contraceptive work linked to withdrawal, a work of management by the man of his desire and his pleasure, could be ensured or, at least, supported by women – what works over the period rarely underline, already obscuring women’s efforts for the sole benefit of male responsibility.

13The arrival of medical methods of contraception, then their diffusion, will however rapidly and profoundly change this situation where men were involved in contraception. Indeed, the male responsibility linked to the practice of withdrawal and ignorance by women of their bodies then seems to disappear very quickly, as evidenced by François, 31-year-old commercial director, interviewed in the mid-1960s by journalist Fanny Deschamps (who notably wrote, at that time, articles in the female press in favor of the pill):

Ten years ago, when I was making love with a minor, it was up to me to think that this poor creature does not catch children, it was not at all in the race. While now! … My wife knows ten times more than I do on this subject and when I make love elsewhere, this problem of not having children, I don’t even think about it any more. I tell myself that the person who is with me has managed, or when he will warn me. Finally, in short, if I am not made to think about it, I no longer think about it (Deschamps, 1968: 33).

6 Whose existence as a distinct specialty from obstetric gynecology appears to be a spec (…)

Whose existence as a distinct specialty of obstetric gynecology appears to be a specific (…) 7 Expression used during an interview by a French epidemiologist to qualify the training (…) 14The mental burden of contraception seems to be be carried over very quickly to women (even if some men can also get involved in it sometimes, for example by reminding their partner to take the pill). This postponement takes place thanks to the medicalization of only female contraception which generates, in addition to this mental burden, material work. Indeed, the legalization of contraception and its pharmaceutical development do not remove the moral issue associated with birth control, but it is the doctors who become the guardians of morality and the regulators of practices contraceptive. The fact that medical gynecologists, infatuated with “endocrinological rationality”, take contraception and at the same time proclaim themselves specialists in “women’s health” further contributes to locking up contraceptive work even more the female sphere. Furthermore, the feminization and medicalization of contraception does not, or very little, arouse criticism from French feminists, unlike their British, Canadian or American counterparts (Vandelac, 2004). The symbol of contraception – and a fortiori the pill – as a tool for the emancipation of women seems to take precedence over the constraints associated with this new responsibility (Löwy, 2005).

15Therefore, it is now very largely women who are concerned with the management of contraception and with the work that it represents (Le Guen et al., 2017). Today it is obvious for the majority of women and men who have sex: women have always thought about and organized contraception. This belief is based on a biological fact, because it is women who bear children. It appears in male discourse on contraception, as here in the case of Sébastien, 38, engineer in professional retraining:

How not to have children? which currently

– And your partner at the time, was she using contraception on her side? So that you can stop [the condom]?

– Uh … Good question … Uh … For her it was her first report. So, was she using it, was she taking the pill …? I think so … I’m more certain. […] She … If we stopped the condom, she had to put on the pill if she didn’t have it by then.

8 Here, letting go affects both the risk of unwanted pregnancy and contamination by (…) 16For Sébastien, the question seems almost incongruous: the burden of avoiding pregnancy seems to have been directly attributed to his partner, without questioning the underlying work. In the same way, punctual relationships can also give rise to a male letting go, as in the case of Domenico (30 years old, in charge of relations in an association) who declares about one of his partners “on vacation” (with whom he had intercourse without a condom): “I imagine that she was taking the pill, no doubt”. The question does not seem to have arisen for him before it was addressed to him during the interview. This naturalization of the female contraceptive duty is also found, moreover, in cases where contraception is carried out outside medical control: this is the case of the methods of self-observation, within the framework of which it is for the woman to do a regular examination of her body and to keep her partner informed of the fertility period. If men are not completely excluded from contraceptive work (Le Guen et al., 2015), their possible investment remains limited. One of the members of Ardecom, an association for the promotion of male contraception which was formed in the 1970s, notes that he is now, at 61, “the youngest” member of the association and underlines a lack of interest in the question on the part of the following generations:

If you don’t have an initiative from above saying “This is where you need to go” and if you don’t have popular validation to say “We want it, we want it”, it doesn’t work. Anyway, women were it, that is to say that the labs responded to a feminist push and proposed an answer and suddenly, it developed, but you need at least two elements that push . We don’t have any, we try to push from the bottom but there are four of us and from the top, it’s no.

17The advances in research on hormones – in particular the discovery of the contraceptive pill – but above all the representation of birth control as a female responsibility that followed, encouraged both by the medical sphere and by representations of contraception as a liberation tool for women, therefore allowed men to largely divest themselves of contraception – and therefore of related work. But if the contraceptive work carried out by women has gradually been made invisible, some of the tasks linked to it remain directly comprehensible. This does not mean, however, that they are considered to be part of reproductive work: largely naturalized, these everyday thoughts and actions, although visible, are often not considered to be part of a more global and systematic form of child labor. women.

9 The process of legitimizing contraception indeed echoes a new issue, both moral and (…) 18Understanding the medical dimension of women’s contraceptive work requires determining what is expected of them. It should first be emphasized that the legalization and dissemination of medical methods of contraception have resulted in a dual form of control over women: medical, due in particular to the medicinal nature of the new contraceptives, but also social, in order to ensure proper use of these products and thereby avoid abortions. Beyond the issues of emancipation and freedom of choice, contraception quickly turned into a true female responsibility:

Faced with the irresponsibility that abortion represents, modern contraceptive practices become the positive norm, the sign of a good social adaptation of women, the proof of their psychological maturity (Ferrand-Picard, 1982: 394).

19The idea that contraceptive coverage should extend to all women appeared gradually in the 1980s. However, it was not until the 1990s and when the use of abortion stabilized (unlike the expected decrease) that the public authorities should focus on contraceptive effectiveness as such.

10 The Pearl index is measured by the number of women who become pregnant while using it (…) 20At the turn of the 1990s, the distinction between theoretical effectiveness (measured by the Pearl index) and effectiveness appears convenient. This distinction highlights that the issue is not only contraceptive coverage, but also the compliance associated with contraceptive practices. Realizing that contraceptive failures, the primary cause of the use of abortion (Moreau et al., 2011), are due to compliance difficulties and tolerance problems, the authorities are gradually shifting the focus from socio-economic barriers individual determinants of contraceptive use. In a logic of calculation of the benefit-risk ratio more and more prevalent in the regulation of medicinal products, but also of dissemination of a “quality” approach in terms of medical prescription, contraceptive effectiveness and adherence then make l subject of all the attention of public authorities and prescribers (Kammen / Oudshoorn, 2002). Contraceptive work must therefore now be effective: we can see the outline of reinforced work for women here, who then assume all the more responsibility for failure and the associated sanctions (Mathieu / Ruault, 2015). The only contraceptive work promoted is actually effective contraceptive work – and it is women who have to (pre) take care of it.

21But ensuring this efficiency is in itself a job, including a form of mental burden, mainly borne by women insofar as it comes from the observance of their own body. The first aspect of this work relates to the obligation of medical monitoring. Indeed, medical methods of contraception, requiring a prescription or follow-up, today concern almost 70% of women (Bajos et al., 2014: 3): cognitive work is therefore associated with the need to have in mind the timing of contraceptive monitoring. This mental burden is coupled with a concrete obligation – that of going to the appointment – which is not always obvious, as evidenced by Carine (31-year-old lawyer):

For doctors, it’s … it’s not easy, my gynecologist if I want an appointment I have it in two months … As she works at the same hours as me where I work, that means that take an afternoon, so there you go, I’m not going like that.

22This excerpt from an interview highlights the confrontation that can play out between contraceptive work and paid work. This confrontation makes the contraceptive constraint visible, no doubt largely because it is opposed to so-called “productive” work.

23The refusal to be subject to this mental burden and the work represented by medical follow-up can also play a role in the contraceptive choice, as testified by Josephine, 32, who works in the performing arts: “This stop of the pill, etc., it was also a way for me to free myself from… that, not necessarily having to go to a doctor ”. Hormonal contraception can be seen as a bondage to medical power rather than a release. It involves time but also money, since all consultations with health professionals and prescribed contraceptives are not fully reimbursed. It is then the fact of stopping going to the doctor that constitutes a “release” from this contraceptive work.

24But women’s time management work is not limited to medical methods of contraception. Indeed, whether it is the pill or self-observation methods, effective contraception also means doing daily work: either taking a tablet at a fixed time, or observing of his body. This is for example the case of Maeva, a 26-year-old unqualified housewife who takes the pill:

So suddenly I found a tip, so I set my alarm to ring every day at 8:30 p.m. actually. Otherwise sometimes I forget it. Even now, I’ve noticed, since I set my alarm to ring there, if my cellphone wasn’t there to remind me, I think I would actually forget it. Sometimes with fatigue, and all that, well I would forget it.

25The need not to forget the pill thus gives rise to “tricks” which are all ways of trying to make the constraint of having to take a drug every day to promote the effectiveness of contraception easier. Self-observation methods also imply rigor of the same type: taking temperature at least during part of the cycle, regular monitoring of mucus, taking notes of observations, etc. Again, it is when it conflicts with salaried work that this work becomes more visible. This is what Marielle, a 35-year-old general practitioner, explains about the “natural methods” that she herself tried to practice:

It was nevertheless thought for a certain type of women … who can be … here, who have time to invest in that. And it was not thought for women who have a professional activity, a timetable where it requires … For example it does not work at all for women who work shift schedules.

26The requirement of strict observance of the method which follows from the injunction to efficiency causes not only a mental load, but also a material constraint which, again, is exposed because it comes up against so-called productive work. And, if male partners can sometimes help their partners manage their contraception (Le Guen et al., 2015), it is nonetheless mainly female and above all highly naturalized, as a 45-year-old doctor working in a family planning:

They will say: ‘No but I am not reliable, I have a small head, I will forget’. Rather, they will put themselves in a self-deprecating register and say that they are not capable. They are not in a militant thing saying: “I do not want to bother taking the pill every day”, it is rather “I am not able, I can not do”.

27These are therefore personal reasons which are cited by women to justify a breach of the contraceptive order, where they could question the very fact that this work is theirs. This self-depreciation stems from the fact that this task is not perceived as such – all the more so as in the case of contraception, women seem to have the choice.

28In 2013, a major scientific and media controversy arose following the discovery of an venous over-risk for users of new generation pills. Although essentially reducing the use of the products in question, this “crisis” more generally destabilized a French contraceptive model centered on the pill in favor of other methods: IUD (intrauterine device, also called IUD), condom, methods say “natural” (withdrawal, periodic abstinence). Beyond the health risk that motivated the evolution of contraceptive and prescriptive practices, it is the constraint and the lack of concrete choice that users have expressed by changing their ways of doing things.

11 Slogan of the first communication campaign on contraception from the Institut National de Prév (…) 29 This lack of choice may seem surprising: in fact, observance is associated with the acceptability of a method and, by Therefore, at her choice, women have been invited for a few years to choose the contraception that would suit them best (“The best contraception is the one we choose”) – without however being taken into account social differences between them that are likely to influence these decisions (Bretin, 1992; Bretin / Kotobi, 2016). But it is important to emphasize that the field of possibilities and what seems “medically” acceptable is in fact limited. Alternative methods (withdrawal, periodic abstinence, local methods), yet used by almost 10% of women affected by contraception (Bajos et al., 2014), are for example fairly systematically omitted in public health campaigns or considered not to be part of the panel of methods to be recommended by prescribers. This extract from an interview with a 67-year-old medical gynecologist attests to this contradictory injunction between choice and effectiveness:

– Contraceptive policies today are those that decrease the number of abortions. Is this the right marker? I do not know.

– Quel serait le bon marqueur selon vous ?

– Le bon marqueur ce serait que les femmes aient une contraception qui leur convient [sic]. Bien sûr que le taux d’IVG c’est important parce que c’est toujours quand même un peu traumatisant. Mais je pense que le bon marqueur c’est de dire que toutes les femmes aient une contraception qui leur convienne et une contraception efficace. Parce que de nos jours, on voit revenir des femmes qui font le retrait, qui font la méthode des jours et on sait comment ça se termine en général. L’ovule est volage et le spermatozoïde tenace. Vous voyez bien ce que ça veut dire. On ne va pas dire ‘non mais voilà, prenez vos risques !’ Qu’on ne dise pas que les méthodes naturelles sont efficaces. Notre slogan c’est de dire la vérité aux femmes et qu’elles choisissent.

30Si la contraception doit “convenir” à chaque utilisatrice, elle n’en doit pas moins être “efficace” selon les critères médicaux, qui ont tendance à dramatiser l’avortement et ainsi à stigmatiser les femmes (Divay, 2004 ; Mathieu/Ruault, 2015). Or, l’efficacité contraceptive n’est pas toujours le déterminant principal du choix d’une contraception et entre souvent en ba­lance avec d’autres priorités : problèmes de santé, coût, éloignement des structures de soins ou des prescripteurs/trices, choix du couple, sexualité, volonté de ne pas avoir d’intermédiaires, notamment médicaux, etc. Ce choix apparaît donc bien illusoire, voire contradictoire, dans la mesure où les utilisatrices sont contraintes à ce qu’il n’entre pas en contradiction avec la norme procréative du “bon enfant” au “bon moment”. Cela nécessite une méthode efficace, au moins pour les femmes qui n’ont pas le profil prescrit : stabilité relationnelle et financière, âge à la maternité socialement acceptable. Faire un choix éclairé nécessite alors une forme particulière de travail : la recherche et le tri de l’information.

31En effet, acquérir des savoirs contraceptifs demande de l’investissement et du temps. Si l’école représente une source de savoir mixte, c’est souvent via leur mère (Amsellem-Mainguy, 2006) ou des réseaux de pairs que les femmes s’informent et sont informées des différents moyens de contra­ception – démarche que les hommes ne font généralement pas, comme en témoigne, en entretien, le flou affectant leur description des méthodes disponibles. Ce travail cognitif passe aussi par le dialogue avec un·e médecin (gynécologue ou généraliste) ou plus rarement un·e sage-femme, dialogue qui s’inscrit dans un suivi médical voulu comme régulier (Guyard, 2010b ; Amsellem-Mainguy, 2012). Cet échange ne se limite d’ailleurs pas à l’en­trée dans la vie contraceptive, mais peut durer tout au long de celle-ci, au gré des changements de méthodes – et il peut conduire à des conflits avec les médecins. C’est par exemple le cas face à des praticien·ne·s refusant de poser des DIU à des femmes nullipares, contrairement aux recommandations de la HAS (Haute Autorité de Santé). En effet, ces recommandations peuvent être connues des femmes, dont le travail cognitif implique aussi un travail de recherche personnelle qui peut désormais passer par Internet (Bruchez et al., 2009 ; de Pierrepont, 2011). C’est d’autant plus le cas pour les méthodes qui ne sont pas recommandées par les médecins, comme les méthodes dites “naturelles” de contraception (en observant la glaire cervicale, la température et/ou le col de l’utérus pour déterminer le moment de l’ovulation). Émeline, auxiliaire de vie de 23 ans qui utilise depuis quelques années l’auto-observation (associée au préservatif masculin en période de fécondité), explique par exemple :

Et là [sur un forum] y’avait un topic [fil de discussion] qui s’appelait “Méthodes naturelles”, etc. J’étais avec ma pilule à ce moment-là, et j’avais commencé à en avoir vraiment marre. J’avais demandé à mon gynéco si il existait pas une méthode naturelle, tu sais pour… pour gérer sa fertilité quoi ! Parce que quand tu vas chez le gynéco, ils te disent ‘C’est soit le stérilet, soit la pilule’. Comment on fait ? ! Y’en a aucun qui me convient ! J’étais là : ‘Ah, OK, super ! Je suis pas la seule à me poser la question’.

32Face au refus de son gynécologue de répondre à ses attentes, Émeline décide de chercher par elle-même des informations grâce à un forum en ligne qui lui permet de découvrir que son problème n’est pas isolé. Ce travail de recueil et de traitement de l’information constitue un pan à part en­tière du travail contraceptif féminin – même si parvenir à accéder à des données ne garantit pas de pouvoir, ensuite, choisir véritablement sa contraception.

33Mais, que la contraception ait pu être choisie ou non, elle est susceptible d’entraîner des effets sur le corps et la sexualité : peut-on alors consi­dérer que la prise en charge de ces effets relève, là encore, d’une forme de travail invisibilisé ?

12 Effet sur la santé associé à un acte médical ou à l’utilisation d’un produit médicamenteux.

Effet sur la santé associé à un acte médical ou à l’utilisation d’un produit médicamenteux. 13 Ce qui se reflète aussi dans les représentations des prescripteurs/trices ( Ventola C., 2014). 34Un des effets de la centralité du corps féminin dans la recherche sur les hormones et le développement des contraceptifs tient dans la minoration, voire la dénégation des effets secondaires induits par la contraception hor­monale. Si le risque iatrogène associé aux contraceptifs hormonaux a fait l’objet d’une attention particulière et de développements visant à le réduire chez les femmes, le bénéfice (prévenir une grossesse) a toujours été jugé supérieur aux effets potentiels sur la santé et au bien-être des utilisatrices. A contrario, s’agissant des sujets masculins, l’acceptabilité du ris­que iatrogène a primé sur le bénéfice, ce qui a permis de justifier l’arrêt de tout développement à la suite des essais cliniques mettant en évidence des effets secondaires. Outre le moindre développement de l’intérêt pour l’ap­pareil reproductif masculin, qui explique la compréhension et la maîtrise plus tardives du mécanisme de production des spermatozoïdes, les effets possibles sur les fonctions sexuelle (désir sexuel, impuissance) et reproductive (réversibilité de la méthode) des hommes ont ainsi constitué des arguments majeurs pour ne pas développer des méthodes masculines qui auraient permis de partager le travail contraceptif entre classes de sexe :

14 Notre traduction. En plus de l’accord général quant à la nécessité de développer de nouveaux contraceptifs masculins, un consensus existe également concernant le fait que la non-interférence avec la fonction sexuelle (“libido” et “potentia”) est une dimension importante de l’acceptabi­lité contraceptive et doit être prise en compte au même titre que d’au­tres critères tels que la sûreté, l’efficacité et la réversibilité (WHO, 1982 :32 ).

35Chez les femmes, les incertitudes concernant les effets sur la santé n’ont pas été un frein au déploiement des méthodes hormonales ; les répercussions sur la sexualité n’ont tout simplement pas ou très peu été investiguées, les femmes étant renvoyées à leur fonction reproductive (Kam­men/Oudshoorn, 2002). Cette asymétrie dans l’acceptabilité du risque, qui a donc conduit à la féminisation de l’offre contraceptive, participe à la naturalisation de la dimension genrée du travail contraceptif, comme le souligne ici un expert britannique en santé sexuelle et reproductive âgé de 70 ans :

15 Notre traduction. La contraception restera toujours un problème féminin, principalement car ce sont les femmes qui tombent enceintes. Des discussions ont eu lieu, au cours de ces quarante dernières années, concernant le développement et la mise à disposition de contraceptifs masculins (notamment hormonaux) – les études sont claires, la contraception hormonale masculine est possible avec des effets secondaires faibles. Pourquoi ne pas la développer ? Les compagnies pharmaceutiques ne mettent pas d’argent dans la recherche, car elles pensent qu’elles ne pourront pas avoir de retour sur investissement. Les cliniciens sont souvent sceptiques et il y a un nombre considérable de mythes qui circulent : les hommes ne vont pas aimer ces contraceptifs, les hom-mes ne sont pas fiables, etc. Tous ces mythes sont faux. Il y a eu beaucoup de travail ces dernières années pour s’assurer qu’il y ait plus de ‘participation masculine’ en santé sexuelle et reproductive. Est-ce que cela a amélioré les choses ? Rien n’est moins sûr .

36L’existence d’effets secondaires liés à la contraception hormonale est donc connue depuis l’apparition de ces méthodes, mais seules les femmes ont eu à les subir et ils ont rapidement été invisibilisés.

37Les gênes susceptibles d’être occasionnées par le contrôle hormonal de la fécondité sont nombreuses : elles peuvent concerner le corps – prise de poids, migraines, saignements intermenstruels, jambes lourdes, etc. –, mais aussi l’humeur, voire le désir (fluctuations du désir sexuel). Lors des entretiens, la majorité des femmes interrogées témoignent avoir, à un moment ou à un autre de leur vie, éprouvé des effets secondaires considérés comme négatifs (ce qui les a parfois incitées à changer de méthode). Selon l’enquête quantitative Fécond 2013, parmi les femmes concernées par la contraception, 36 % déclarent ressentir des effets secondaires avec la méthode qu’elles utilisent – proportion qui tend à augmenter avec l’utilisation de méthodes hormonales, notamment de la pilule contraceptive (43,4 %). Ce constat peut alors conduire à un changement de contraception. L’en­quête montre par exemple que 45 % des femmes qui ont arrêté leur pilule entre décembre 2012 et juillet 2013 l’ont fait à cause des effets ressentis. Nolwenn, étudiante de 23 ans qui a pris la pilule quelque temps avant de repasser au préservatif masculin, explique quels peuvent être ces effets :

Et en fait c’est quand j’ai vu que mon cholestérol avait doublé en six mois, je me suis dit ‘Non, là c’est pas possible ! ’. Puis cette prise de poids soudaine […] m’a choquée, et j’ai vu mon corps changer, vrai­ment, et du coup c’était trop. […] Et… et je me sentais quand même assez perturbée, je sentais que mes émotions… Enfin, je sais pas, ma libido j’avais l’impression qu’elle baissait, après c’est peut-être que je devenais parano hein, mais… J’avais l’impression que j’étais beaucoup plus à vif, enfin j’avais des transformations de comportements aussi.

38Nolwenn a dû s’accommoder de ces changements consécutifs à la prise de la pilule, qui ont constitué pour elle un “choc” dans sa perception de son corps, de son désir et plus largement de son comportement. L’impor­tance de ces effets secondaires est cependant souvent niée ou minimisée par les membres du corps médical, qui les considèrent comme normaux, sans importance et devant donc être supportés par les femmes. Cependant, s’y confronter et chercher à les atténuer représente pour les femmes un tra­vail en soi, sur leurs corps et leurs émotions, qui n’apparaît en filigrane que lors de prises de conscience, comme pour Nolwenn, ou lors de l’arrêt de la contraception, comme dans le cas de Mélanie, éducatrice spécialisée de 35 ans (qui prenait la pilule et l’a arrêtée lorsqu’elle a débuté une relation avec une femme) : « Non. Non non, non non, j’ai jamais eu d’effets secondaires… À part des maux de tête. […]. Par contre j’ai rencontré des effets hyper positifs quand je l’ai arrêtée ». Ici, la situation vue comme nor­male par Mélanie est celle de son corps “sous pilule”, ce qui met bien au jour un travail d’invisibilisation des effets secondaires. Cette invisibilisation des changements provoqués et des ajustements requis par le travail contraceptif peut ainsi être le fait des femmes elles-mêmes.

39Un autre aspect du travail contraceptif féminin sur le corps concerne plus précisément la sexualité. Certes, les hommes aussi peuvent ressentir l’influence de certains modes de contraception (préservatif masculin, retrait) sur leur sexualité. Cependant, le préservatif masculin comme le retrait demeurent, en France, des méthodes de transition ou de court terme (Beltzer/Bajos, 2008), contrairement aux autres méthodes de contraception (Higgins/Smith, 2016). Or, ces effets sur la sexualité des femmes sont rarement pris en compte (Guyard, 2010a). C’est seulement au prix d’un travail sur les émotions (Hochschild, 2017) et sur leurs désirs que les fem­mes peuvent adapter leur sexualité aux contrecoups de la contraception – par exemple en s’attachant à ne désirer un rapport sexuel que lorsque c’est le moment adéquat dans leur cycle.

40Le travail le plus invisibilisé que la contraception – hormonale (Grino, 2014), mais pas uniquement – impose aux femmes est donc une activité dont elles semblent rarement conscientes et qui porte sur elles-mêmes : sur leur corps, leurs émotions, leur sexualité, voire leur perception d’elles-mêmes.

41La “crise de la pilule” de 2012-2013 a eu l’effet d’un électrochoc, amenant une femme sur cinq à changer de méthode contraceptive entre septembre 2012 et juin 2013 (Bajos et al., 2014). Si la pilule commençait déjà à perdre du terrain, mais dans une mesure toute relative (diminution de 4 points en une décennie selon Bajos et al., 2012), les changements observés entre 2010 et 2013 ont été majeurs et ont mis au jour une faille dans le modèle. Au travers des effets sur la santé, c’est bien la contrainte sur le corps mais aussi la charge mentale que celle-ci représente qui ont été remises en question. L’enquête Fécond 2013 montre pourtant que les représentations négatives à l’égard de la pilule n’ont guère évolué, son caractère contraignant ou ses effets supposés sur le corps n’étant pas plus évoqués par les femmes aujourd’hui qu’en 2010 (environ une femme sur trois est tout à fait d’accord avec l’idée que la pilule est contraignante et une sur quatre avec l’idée qu’elle fait grossir). Or, cette controverse a permis un changement dans les pratiques : comme si les utilisatrices s’étaient autorisées à dévier du modèle.

42Les scandales plus récents autour du DIU Mirena et de ses effets indésirables renforcent cette idée d’une remise en cause généralisée d’un modèle ayant invisibilisé le travail féminin, qu’il concerne l’organisation du temps, des savoirs, la charge mentale ou la prise en compte du corps. La médicalisation et la féminisation conjointe de la contraception ont en effet contribué à sa normalisation et à l’évacuation progressive des enjeux politiques autour du contrôle des corps reproducteurs. La publicisation des ris­ques et des effets secondaires participe ainsi d’un travail politique de désenclavement (Dodier, 2003) de la pilule et, de manière générale, de la contraception médicale, dont l’enjeu est d’opposer la transparence et l’in­formation à une vision émancipatrice des méthodes proposées, qui tend trop à occulter les dimensions du travail contraceptif. On observe, concernant la dimension contraignante de la contraception, une sorte de libération de la parole portée par les associations de victimes mais également par les usagères, ainsi qu’une « politisation du cabinet médical » (Quéré, 2016 :33) visant à remettre en question les asymétries de pouvoir dans les rapports entre corps médical et usagères.

43Cependant, deux grandes limites à cette remise en question sont à évoquer. D’une part, une différenciation entre groupes sociaux est observée (Bajos et al., 2014), les plus précaires choisissant de plus en plus des méthodes théoriquement moins efficaces (comme le retrait), les plus aisées se tournant vers des méthodes théoriquement plus efficaces et de long court (comme le DIU). Cette reproduction d’inégalités doit faire réfléchir sur les dimensions concrètes du travail contraceptif évoquées (capacité de négociation avec le prescripteur/trices et le partenaire, contrainte financière, degré d’information) et sur une division sexuelle de celui-ci qui peut s’a­vérer plus ou moins pesante pour les femmes d’une méthode contraceptive à l’autre, et donc d’un milieu social à l’autre. D’autre part, dans cette remise en cause du modèle français, le travail contraceptif reste majoritaire­ment féminin et l’asymétrie de genre est finalement assez peu posée. La norme procréative semble s’adapter sans jamais remettre en cause les fondements genrés du travail contraceptif, aujourd’hui encore considérés comme naturels et biologiques. Le travail politique en train de s’opérer n’a, en ce sens, pas encore investi le terrain des rapports entre femmes et hommes, pourtant structurants dans les modalités du travail contraceptif : la remise en cause de la contraception médicale ne sera positive pour les femmes que si elle va de pair avec celle des rapports de genre qui la sous-tendent.

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